Tenses


1.      Simple Present

Pattern:  S + Verb (s/es) + O
Time signal: every day, every week, every Sunday, etc.
Function:   a. to describe general truth.
                  Example: The sun rises from east.
                  b. To describe permanent things
                  Example: I live in Indonesia
                  C. to ask someone opinion
                  D. to explain an event that has been scheduled

2.      Simple Past

Pattern: S + Verb 2 + O
Function:   a. to describe an activity that started and ended in the past time.
                  Example: I ate yesterday at 07.00 pm
                  b. to explain daily activity that happened in the past
                  Example: I used to go to school by bike when I was a child.
                  c. used in conditional sentence type II.
                  Example: if I had a book, I would become a smart student.
Time signal            : yesterday, last week, etc.

3.      Simple future
Pattern: S + Will + V
Function:   a. to show an activity that has been scheduled in the next time.
Time signal: tomorrow, next week, next Sunday.

Difference between “Will” and “Be going to”: "Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. “Will” is also usually used in promises. "Be going to” expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not. Both "will" and "be going to" refer to a specific time in the future and can express the idea of a general prediction about the future.

Example:
I will send you the information when I get it.
Will you help me move this heavy table?
4.      Present progressive

Pattern:

Function: used to elaborate the idea of temporary actions, an action which is going to be happened in the near future, an action which is happening/in progress at the time of speaking/writing, a future action which is planned

Time signal: Now, whole day, this time, etc.

I am working on my Chemistry project right now.
Anita and her friends are playing in the garden.


5.      Future progressive
Future Progressive is used to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future; and to express the idea that two actions will be happening at the same time. The actions are parallel. Unlike Simple Future forms, Future Progressive forms are usually interchangeable.
Pattern:

I was watching TV when she called.
When the phone rang, she was writing a letter.
6.      Past progressive
Past Progressive (Continuous) is used to indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.

7.      Present perfect
      Present Perfect is used to express an action which has connection with the past, the exact time of the action is not known.
Pattern: S + Have/Has + V3 + C/O

Example:   They have moved into a new apartment.
                  I have flown on an airplane many times.

8.      Past Perfect
      Past Perfect is used to express the idea that something occurred before another
action in the past. It can also show that something happened before a specific time in
the past.
Pattern: S + Had + V3 +C/O
Additional adverb: before, after, when,etc
Example:   I had never seen such a beautiful beach before I went to Kauai.
                  I did not have any money because I had lost my wallet.
                  Tony knew Istanbul so well because he had visited the city several times.
9.      Future perfect
Future Perfect is used to express the idea that something will occur before another action in the future.
Pattern: S + will/shall + have + V3 + O/C
Example:     By the time I finish this course, I will have taken ten tests.
                    I am not going to have finished this test by 3 o'clock.
                    By next November, I will have received my promotion.

10.  Present perfect progressive
      Present Perfect Progressive (Continuous) is an absolute-relative tense that refers to a time located in the future, relative to a contextually determined temporal reference point that itself must be located in the past relative to the moment of utterance.
Pattern: S + Have/has + been + being + V-ing + O/C

Example:     My back hurts, so I have been sleeping on the floor lately.
                    Andrew has been working at the same store for about ten years.
                    She has been working at that company for three years.



11.  Past perfect Continuous
      Past Perfect Progressive (Continuous) is used to show that something started in
the past and continued up until another time in the past.
Pattern: S + Had + Been + Being + V-Ing + O/C
Example:  They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived.
She had been working at that company for 3 years when it went broke.
  Sam gained weight because he had been overeating.

12.  Future perfect
      Future Progressive is used to show that something started in the past and
continued up until another time in the future.
Pattern: S + will/shall + have + been + being
Example:     You will have been waiting for more than two hours when her plane finally
                  arrives at the airport.
                    They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives.
                    How long will you have been studying when you graduate?

Exercise:

Change the verbs in the brackects into their correct forms!
1. Usually, I (work) as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study) French at a
language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris.
2. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (say) because everybody (talk) so loudly.
3. Justin (write, currently) a book about his adventures in Tibet. I hope he can
find a good publisher when he is finished.
4. The business cards (be, normally) printed by a company in New York. Their
prices (be) inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good.
5. Sebastian (arrive) at Susan's house a little before 9:00 PM, but she (be, not)
there. She (study, at the library) for her final examination in French.


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